1. Định nghĩa
Giới từ là từ loại đứng trước danh từ hoặc đại từ để chỉ thời gian, địa điểm, phương hướng, vv…
2. Dạng giới từ
Giới từ có thể là một từ hoặc một nhóm từ:
Giới từ là một từ Giới từ là một nhóm từ
In spite of
regardless of
due to
instead of
in front of
3. Phân loại
Các giới từ trong tiếng Anh có thể được phân thành mấy loại sau:
3.1. Giới từ chỉ Thời gian.
After (sau)
at (lúc)
before (trước)
by (trước)
from (từ)
until (cho đến khi)
in (vào lúc)
on (vào lúc)
Since + mốc thời gian (kể từ khi)
For + khoảng thời gian (trong khoảng)
During + N (trong suốt)
Throughout (xuyên suốt)
within (trong vòng)
Phân biệt in, on, at
at - Trước thời gian cụ thể
- Trước một dịp lễ hội, một thời khắc nào đó.
At 10 o’clock
At noon/ night/ midnight
At the beginning of the month
At the end of the year
At breakfast/ lunch/ dinner
On Trước ngày, thứ, ngày lễ On Sunday
On Monday morning
On September 10th
On New Year’s day
In - Trước thế kỷ, thập kỷ năm, tháng, mùa
- Trước các buổi trong ngày
- in + khoảng thời gian
in 1990                       in the 1990s
in September             in the 21th century
in spring/ summer/ autumn/ winter
in the morning/ afternoon/ evening
in the end = finally (cuối cùng)
in 5 minutes, in 2 days
* LƯU Ý:
KHÔNG dùng IN, ON, AT trước all, every, this month/year, next, last, tomorrow, yesterday, today.
I hope to see you next Friday. (on next Friday)
Tôi hy vọng được gặp bạn vào thứ sáu tới.
Chúng ta ko dùng on cùng với next Friday. Chỉ cần dùng next Friday là đủ.
3.2. Giới từ chỉ Địa điểm/Nơi chốn
Above (trên)
Across (bang qua)
At (ở)
Behind (sau)
Below (dưới)
Beneath (dưới)
Beside (bên cạnh)
by (bên cạnh)
in (trong)
on (trên)
Over (quá)
to (tới)
toward (tới)
under (dưới)
between (giữa 2 vật)
among (ở giữa nhiều vật)
Phân biệt in, on, at
At - Để diễn tả một vị trí được xác định trong không gian hoặc số nhà. - at the door / bus stop / traffic lights / party / meeting / desk …
- at 69 Tran Hung Dao Street
- at home / school / college / university / work …
- at the top/bottom of (the page …)
- at the end of (the street …)
- at the front/back of (the line …)
- at/on the corner of the street
On - Chỉ vị trí bên trên và tiếp xúc với bề mặt của một vật gì đó.
- - Với phương tiện đi lại công cộng hoặc cá nhân
- on the door / floor / wall / ceiling / river / beach / coast …
- on/in the street, on a page
- on a bus/train/ship/plane/ bicycle/ motorbike
- on the right / left, on horseback, on the way to (school …)
- on the back/front of (
- on top of
- on/at the corner of a street ở góc đường
In - ở một nơi nào đó
- Với phương tiện xe hơi, taxi hoặc đường phố.
- Trước các đất nước, thành phố, phương hướng.
- in a box/ room/ building/ park/ garden/ bag/ world….
- in a car / taxi, in/on the street
- in bed / hospital / prison
- in Vietnam/ England/ Hanoi/ the east/ the west/ the south/ the north…
- in the front/ back of
- in the middle of
3.3. Giới từ chỉ Lý do, nguyên nhân.
-Thanks to: nhờ
-Through: do, vì
-Because of: bởi vì
-Owing to: nhờ ở, do ở
-By means of: nhờ, bằng phương tiện
3.4. Giới từ chỉ Mục đích.
To: để
-In order to: để
-For sb/ sth: dùm, dùm cho
-So as to: để
3.5. Giới từ chỉ thể cách
-With: với
-Without: không, không có
-According to: theo
-In spite of: mặc dù
-Instead of: thay vì
3.6. Giời từ chỉ sự chuyển dịch
-To, into, onto: đến
+to: chỉ hướng tiếp cận tới người,vật,địa điểm.
+into: tiếp cận và vào bên trong vật,địa điểm đó
+onto: tiếp cận và tiếp xúc bề mặt,ở phía ngoài cùng của vật,địa điểm
-From: chỉ nguồn gốc xuất xứ
-Across: ngang qua
-Along: dọc theo
-Round, around, about: quanh
3.7. Các giới từ khác:
From… to/until/ till: từ …đến…
Between … and…: giữa …và…
Against: chống lại, dựa vào
4. Ngoài ra chúng ta còn có các cụm động từ đi với giới từ, danh từ đi với giới từ, tính từ đi với giới từ:
4.1- danh từ đi với giới từ: nouns + preposition:
  • cause of: nguyên nhân của
The cause of the fire was carelessness.
  •  combination of: sự kết hợp của
A combination of high interest rates and falling demands forced the company to close.
  • demand for: yêu cầu về
The management has refused to agree to our demand for a 7% pay raise.
  •  development in: sự phát triển trong
People are happy with developments in medicine.
  • effect of: ảnh hưởng của
One of the effects of this illness is that you lose your hair.
  • example of: ví dụ về
This church is a wonderful example of medieval architecture.
  • exception to: ngoại lệ
We don't usually do it this way, but we'll make an exception to the rule in your case.
  • idea for: ý tưởng về
What gave you the idea for the book?
  • improvement in: sự cải tiến trong
There has been a significant improvement in the company's trading position.
  • increase in: sự tăng ở
An increase in crime was one of the most serious problems that city had.
  • native of: người dân ở
 He is a native of California.
  • part in: một phần trong
The question of cost will play an important part in our decision.
  • price of: giá của
What is the price of this suit?
  • probability of: khả năng của
There's very little probability of an agreement being reached.
  • problem with: vấn đề với
The company has no problems with the management
  •  process of: quá trình của
Coal was formed out of dead forests by a long, slow process of chemical change.
  • reliance on: sự tin tưởng vào
I have complete reliance on his judgment.
  •  result of: kết quả của
His sickness is the result of the contaminated food.
  •  rules for: luật lệ dành cho
There are rules for driving.
  • rules of (a game): luật của (một trò chơi)
To enjoy golfing, you need to understand the rules of golf.
  • solution to: giải pháp cho
There are no simple solutions to the unemployment problem.
  • source of: nguồn của
We'll have to find a new source of income.
  • a supply of: nguồn cung cấp
Bring a large supply of food with you.
  •  a variety of: rất nhiều
The shirt is available in a variety of colors.
4.2. Tính từ/ Trạng từ đi với giới từ: Adjectives/ adverb + prepositiom
  •  afraid of: lo ngại
I've always been afraid of flying.
  • angry at (something): tức giận
They were angry at the way they had been treated.
  • angry with (someone): tức giận với ai
I was[got] really angry with her.
  • attached to: đính kèm với
The children are very attached to their grandparents.
  • based on: dựa trên
He wrote a novel based on fact.
  •  capable of: có khả năng
A force 10 wind is capable of blowing (= able and likely to blow) the roofs off houses.
  • close to: gần
She was very close to death for a while.
  • dependent on: phụ thuộc vào
It’s very easy to become dependent on sleeping pills.
  • different from: khác với
Emily is completely different from her sister.
  • disappointed with[by]: thất vọng về
I'm disappointed by the way our team played today.
  • eligible for: đủ tư cách, thích hợp
You have to be employed for six months to be eligible for medical benefits,
  •  essential to[for]: cần thiết đối với
A knowledge of English is essential for this job.
  • familiar with: thân thuộc
I'm not familiar with current research in the field.
  • free from: không có
Because the organization is a charitable enterprise, it is free from tax worldwide.
  • free of: thoát ra khỏi
My doctor told me I would never be completely free of the disease.
  •  identical to: giống hệt
The tests are identical to those carried out last year.
  • inferior to: thấp kém hơn
They felt inferior to the others until the team's international success gave them some pride.
  • married to: kết hôn với
How long have you been married to John?
  • preferable to: thích hợp với
Surely a diplomatic solution is preferable to war.
  • related to: liên quan đến
Experts believe that a large number of cancer cases in the area are directly related to the new nuclear power station.
  • responsible for: có trách nhiệm
John is directly responsible for the efficient running of the office.
  • satisfied with: hài lòng về
I am not fully satisfied with the standard of your work.
  •  similar to: tương tự
I bought some new shoes which are very similar to a pair I had before.
  •  subject to: tùy thuộc vào
Japan is a country subject to earthquakes.
  • suitable for: phù hợp
The movie is rated R and is not suitable for children.
  • superior to: cao cấp hơn, giỏi hơn
Manufacturing companies spend millions of dollars trying to convince customers that their products are superior to those of other companies.
  • surprised at[by]: ngạc nhiên
We were very surprised at the result. He seemed surprised by the question.
4.3. Động từ đi với giới từ: verbs+ preposition
  • account for = explain: giải thích
The army made no attempt to account for the missing men.
  • accustom oneself to: quen với việc gì
It'll take time for me to accustom myself to the changes.
  • agree to (a plan): đồng ý (với một kế hoạch)
Both sides in the conflict have agreed to the terms of the peace treaty.
  •  agree with (someone): đồng ý (với ai đó)
I agree with you.
  •  approve of: tán thành
I thoroughly approve of what the management is doing.
  •  arrive at: đến (một nơi cụ thể: nhà ga, sân bay, khách sạn..)
It was dark by the time we arrived at the station.
  • arrive in: đến (một thành phố, một đất nước..)
Early humans first arrived in this area over 25,000 years ago.
  •  begin with: bắt đầu với
The word 'cat begins with the letter 'c'.
  • believe in: tin tưởng vào
I believe in the fundamental goodness of human nature.
  • caution against: cảnh báo không làmgif
The writer cautioned the newspaper's readers against buying (= warned them not to buy) shares without getting good advice first,
  • compete with: cạnh tranh với
If a company competes with another, it tries to get people to buy its goods or services instead of the other companies.
  • consist of: bao gồm
The team consists of four Americans and two Europeans.
  • contribute to: đóng góp vào
Falling sales in the American market contributed to the company's collapse.
  • cooperate with: hợp tác với
He said that he had cooperated with the government in its investigation.
  • deal with: giải quyết, xử lý, giao thiệp, đề cập đến
The second part of this document deals with staff training.
  • decide on: quyết định
We've decided on a beige carpet for the dining room.
  • decrease by: giảm (mức bao nhiêu)
His salary decreased by 10 % because of the recession.
  • depend on: phụ thuộc
The cost of your flight depends on what time of year you go. The city's economy depends largely on the car industry.
  • divide among (more than two people): chia
I think we should divide (up) the costs equally among us.
  •  divide between (two people): chia
Greg divides his energies between running the company and playing tennis.
  •  divide into (parts): chia thành (các phần)
After World War II, Germany was divided into two separate countries for more than four decades.
  • escape from: thoát khỏi
A lion has escaped from its cage.
  • interfere with: can thiệp, xen vào
Even a low level of noise interferes with my concentration
  • invest in: đầu tư
The company has invested millions of dollars in writing new programs.
  • participate in: tham gia
She never participates in any of our discussions, does she?
  • pay for: trả
How much did you pay for the tickets?
  • plan on: dự định
We were planning on just having a snack and catching the early train.
  •  prepare for: chuẩn bị
Although the crisis seems to be over, we should prepare for a time of troubles.
  •  prohibit from: cấm
Motor vehicles are prohibited from driving in the town's center.
  • recover from: hồi phục
It took her a long while to recover from her heart operation.
  • rely on: tin tưởng, dựa dẫm
I rely on you for good advice.
  • replace A with B: thay thế A bằng B
The factory replaced most of its workers with robots.
  • respond to: đáp lại
The government has responded to public pressure by abolishing the new tax.
  • result in: dẫn đến
The fire resulted in damage to their property.
  • search for: tìm kiếm
Scientists are still searching for a cure for the common cold.
  • subscribe to: đăng ký
She subscribes to women's magazines and the local newspaper.
  • substitute A for B: thay thế A cho B
The company illegally substituted cheap bolts and screws for more expensive materials.
  • succeed in: thành công
The campaign has certainly succeeded in raising public awareness of the issue.
  • talk about (a topic): nói về (một chủ đề)
He spent a lot of time talking about his hobbies.
  • talk to (an audience or a person): nói chuyện (với ai)
She talked to her mother on the phone every week,
  • wait for (something or someone): chờ đợi
The dentist kept me waiting for ages.
  •  wait on (a customer): phục vụ
She waited on shoppers all day at the department store.
Và một số cấu trúc khác nữa:
  • ahead of: ở phía trước
I'm on the waiting list for a ticket, but there are ten people ahead of me.
  •  along with:cùng với
Why don't you take him along with you when you go?
  • in charge of: chịu trách nhiệm, phụ trách
Who will be in charge of the department when Sophie leaves?
  •  in favor of: ủng hộ
The majority was in favor of the proposal.
  • instead of: thay vì
You can have herbal tea instead of coffee if you want.
  •  on account of: vì
She's angry on account of what you said about her husband at lunch.
  • prior to: trước
He had showed no signs of being in pain prior to(= before) suffering a heart attack and collapsing.
  • regardless of: bất kể
The plan for a new office tower went ahead regardless of local opposition.
  • together with: cùng với
That bottle of champagne, together with those chocolates, will make a nice present.
  • access to: truy cập vào
The system has been designed to give the user quick and easy access to the required information.
  • add to: thêm vào
Have you anything to add to your earlier statement?
  • advocate for: ủng hộ cho
Dr. Smith has long been a practicing pediatrician and an advocate for children’s rights.
  •  ahead of time: trước
Let's meet for lunch. I'll call you ahead of time (= in advance) to fix a time and a place.
  • be aimed at: hướng đến (mục tiêu là)
The government's campaign is aimed at influencing public opinion.
  •  arrange for: sắp xếp
The meeting has been arranged for Wednesday.
  • aside from: ngoài ra
I hardly watch any television, aside from news and current affairs.
  • at random: ngẫu nhiên
The librarian took a book from the shelf at random.
  • at stake: bị đe dọa
Thousands of lives will be at stake if emergency aid does not arrive in the city soon.
  • at the rate of: ở mức
The car was going at the rate of 40 miles an hour.
  • at the risk of: có nguy cơ
He rescued the dog at the risk of his own life.
  • attribute A to B: cho A là do B
The doctors have attributed the cause of the illness to an unknown vii us.
  • be absorbed in: mải mê, chăm chú
John was absorbed in his thoughts.
  • be accustomed to + noun/V-ing: quen với việc gì
I'm not accustomed to being treated like this.
  • become acquainted with( = get to know): bắt đầu làm quen với
John became acquainted with many well-known writers and artists.
  • be acquainted with: quen với
Students who are already acquainted with one foreign language tend to find it easier to learn a new one.
  • be apt to: có xu hướng
The kitchen roof is apt to leak when it rains.
  • be ashamed of: xấu hổ
Oliver Twist was not ashamed of asking for more food.
  •  be available to: có sẵn
It is vital that food is made available to the famine areas.
  • be aware of: nhận thức về
Is he aware of the price of shoes like those? (= Does he realize that they are very expensive?)
  • be bound to: sắp
It was bound to happen sooner or later.
  • be comparable to: có thể so sánh với
A cave is not comparable to a house for comfort.
  • be concerned about: quan tâm về
I'm a bit concerned about your health.
  • be convicted of: bị kết án
He has twice been convicted of robbery.
  •  be covered with: được bao phủ bởi
How much of the Earth's surface is covered with water?
  •  be discontented with: bất mãn với
The boys are discontented with their present situation.
  •  be eager to: hào hứng
She was very eager to meet you.
  • be entitled to: được phép, được quyền làm gì
The one who wins is entitled to the first prize.
  • be essential to: cần thiết với
The accounting department is essential to the company's organization.
  • be experienced in (a field): có kinh nghiệm (trong lĩnh vực nào đó)
John is very experienced in repairing cars.
  • be experienced with (something): có kinh nghiệm (về việc gì đó)
He is experienced with the new computer.
  •  be faced with: đối mặt với
The company is faced with a difficult situation because of the recession.
  • be famous for: nổi tiếng
Korea is famous for semiconductors.
  • be intended for: dành cho
That gift was intended for you.
  • be liable to: có khả năng xảy ra
That glass is liable to break.
  • be likely to: có khả năng
It is likely to be hot in August.
  •  be noted for: được chú ý đến bởi
Samson was noted for his strength.
  • be suspicious of: nghi ngờ
Sometimes women are overly suspicious of their husbands.
  • be willing to + verb: sẵn sàng
I am willing to wait until tomorrow.
  • beware of: thận trọng với
You must beware of swimming in a strong current.
  • call on + someone: kêu gọi
We must call on our new neighbors.
  • call one's attention to: thu hút sự chú ý đến
This is to call your attention to the fact that your account of U.S. $1.000 is still unpaid.
  • care for: chăm sóc
The nurse will care for him at the hospital.
  • carry out: thực hiện
He carried out his job well.
  • come down with: bị mắc (bệnh)
He came down with the measles.
  • come in first [second, third]: đến đầu tiền (thứ hai, thứ ba)
That horse came in first.
  •  come into effect: có hiệu lực
The marketing advertisement will come into effect soon.
  •  come to an end: chấm dứt
All good things must come to an end.
  •  compared to: so sánh với
Model 312 is the more advanced system, compared to Model 212.
  •  compensate for: bồi thường
The company always compensated her for her extra work,
  • comply with: tuân theo
He complied with the doctor's order to take a rest.
  • concentrate on: tập trung
He concentrated on his reading so that he would understand the story.
  • contrary to: trái ngược với
My sister's taste in dresses is contrary to my own.
  • count on: tin tưởng
I'm sure that I can count on your cooperation.
  • deprive A of B: lấy cái gì của ai
The people deprived the cruel king of his power.
  • difference between: sự khác biệt giữa
The only difference between the twins is that Katy weighs five pounds more than Rebecca.
  • dispense with: bỏ qua, tha cho, không cần đến
It's so warm today that I can dispense with an overcoat.
  • divide A into B: chia A thành B
The business organization can be divided into several different divisions.
  • do without: làm mà không có …
A month after accepting the resignation of its corporate planning director, the company found that it will be extremely difficult to do without him.
  • exposed to: bị rơi vào tình thế (nguy hiểm, tai nạn..)
Many people were exposed to danger.
  • familiarize oneself with: làm quen với
Before playing the new game, familiarize yourself with the rules.
  • fill in: điền
When you apply for that job, you need to fill in the date of your application.
  • fill out: Hoàn thành đơn
Please fill out the application form, and send it.
  • furnished with: được trang bị đồ đạc
This apartment is furnished with fine furniture.
  • get along with: hòa thuận với
The boss should get along with the employees.
  • get in touch with: liên lạc với
I will get in touch with you wherever I go.
  • get through: vượt qua, hoàn thành
As soon as I get through with my work, I will join you.
  • have an effect on: có ảnh hưởng đến
The advertising campaign didn't have much effect on sales.
  • have influence on: có ảnh hưởng đến
The climate has a great influence on farming.
  • in[with] regard to: liên quan đến
The teacher wishes to speak to you in[with] regard to being late.
  •  in a row: trong một hàng
There are three houses in a row.
  • in accordance with: phù hợp với
What he did was in accordance with what he said.      
  •  in conclusion: kết luận
In conclusion, I will say that it was an honor to be the speaker at this meeting.
  •  In honor of: vinh danh
The dinner was held in honor of a colleague who was leaving.
  •  in response to: đáp lại, đáp ứng, hưởng ứng
She laughed in response to his jokes.
  •  in support of: ủng hộ
He spoke in support of the proposal.
  • keep track of: theo dõi
The noise made it difficult for me to keep track of what you said.
  • make up for (= compensate tor): bù đắp
He reserved a direct flight from Los Angeles to Chicago to make up for lost time.
  • on behalf of: thay mặt cho
He worked on behalf of his friend.
The lawyer spoke convincingly on behalf of his client.
  • out of order: hỏng
That air conditioner is out of order.
  • place an emphasis on: nhấn mạnh vào
The president of the company placed a great emphasis on the marketing campaign.
  • raise the question: đặt ra câu hỏi
The president raised the question concerning the upcoming merger.
  • run[take] a risk of: mạo hiểm
In order to win the war, we had to take the risk of offending neutral nations.
  • run out of: hết
Mother ran out of eggs and had to borrow some from our neighbor.
  • set up (= establish): thành lập, thiết lập
He sold his business and set up a new one.
  • sign up for: đăng ký
Did you sign up for a computer class?
  • specialize in: chuyên về
Many students specialize in engineering.
  • stand by (= support): ủng hộ
I delivered a speech to stand by the government policy.
  • stand for (= represent): tượng trưng cho
The blue bird stands for happiness.
  • succeed in: thành công
She was filled with the aspiration to succeed in life.
  • take advantage of: tận dụng
You shouldn't take advantage of his generosity.
  • take into consideration: xem xét
The judge took the boy's age into consideration.
  • take turns: thay phiên nhau
They took turns watching the baby.

1. Increasing market share is regarded ----------- an important business objective at McGahern Industries.
(A) with
(B) to
(C) in spite of
(D) as
2. Customer service specialists are available Monday ---------- Friday to answer any questions you may have about your new purchase.
(A) through
(B) in
(C) on
(D) at

3. Over 20 candidates showed up to compete --------- three job openings at the government agency.
(A) for
(B) to
(C) with
(D) against

4. They will not resume supplying the building -----------  electricity until full payment plus late charges has been made.
(A) for
 (B) to
(C) with
(D) about
5. After reporting dramatic drops in sales ------------ the year, SuperMart stores finally announced that it will be filing for bankruptcy.
(A) throughout       
(B) along
(C) between
(D) at

6.  Please call me back by five o'clock ------------- the latest to confirm your attendance, if not, I will have to give your seat to someone else.
(A) at
(B) until
(C) before
(D) up to
7.  The president is available to see you ------------- 3 o'clock onward on Monday of this week.
(A) from                   
(B) at
(C) during    
(D) between

8.  Eastways Airlines blames the bad weather ------------- the delay in the flight.
(A) from                   
(B) with
(C) of            
(D) for

9. Because you failed to obey the traffic signal at the time of the accident, the damages to your vehicle will not be covered ------------- the insurance policy.
(A) in
(B) through
(C) throughout
(D) under
10. To ensure the two-year free maintenance guarantee, the enclosed questionnaire must be completed and submitted ------------- 30 days of purchase.
(A) by                        
(B) before
(C) within     
(D) under

11. Several employees were speaking loudly ---------- the presentations yesterday morning, and this behavior will not be tolerated at future presentations.
(A) while
(B) during
(C) for
(D) within

12. Foreign corporations that have invested in the country have increased significantly in recent years, largely ------------- the government's tax regulations.
(A) thereby
(B) insofar as
(C) because of
(D) in spite of

13. It is strongly recommended that the government streamline banks and dispose ----------------- uncompetitive businesses.
(A) by
(B) at
(C) of
(D) on

14. After reporting dramatic drops in sales -------- the year, SuperMart stores finally announced that it will be filing for bankruptcy.
(A) throughout       
(B) along
(C) between
(D) at

14. Every month, the business club invites a business person who has been noted --------- his or her accomplishments in the local area
(A) for                      
(B) to
(C) with                    
(D) of

15. In the event your vehicle is damaged --------- repair, we at Vehicle Locator Services can assist you in locating a comparable replacement vehicle.
(A) between
(B) below
(C) beyond
(D) beside

16. I don't think the supervisor has the right to interfere --------- our private affairs.
(A) of            
(B) with
(C) in             
(D) at

17. If you default ----------- your payments, the bank will be forced to repossess your car.
(A) at            
(B) with
(C) of            
(D) on

18. It's really surprising that these pieces of pottery had been buried ---------- the earth for thousands of years.
(A) inside
(B) down
(C) beneath
(D) toward

19. The dream of most salaried workers is to have a vacation at a resort where there are long sandy beaches and shady palm trees -------- the sea.
(A) between
(B) above
(C) beside
(D) across

20. Sales of our new wireless product have already doubled ------------ we attended the hardware trade show last month.
(A) by                        
(B) before
(C) since                   
(D) past

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